View larger version 43K Fig. The active phase is characterized by upper-level divergence and enhanced deep convection and the suppressed phase by upper-level convergence and mostly nonprecipitating shallow cumuli Zhang and references therein. Moistening of the full column takes place after MJO onset BH in connection with relatively bottom-heavy diabatic heating, suggesting abundant congestus and cumulonimbus clouds and minimal stratiform rainfall Fig. Studies have related this moistening to the gravity wave or Kelvin wave response to the convective envelope of previous MJO events Kiladis et al. Note, however, that the magnitude of this sudden cooling owes largely to a single event on 15 November Fig. The Madden—Julian oscillation MJO; Madden and Julian , dominates tropical intraseasonal 20—90 day variability and influences global weather e.
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